IT’S important to figure out what type of headache is causing your pain. If you know your headache type, you can treat it correctly.In one 2004 study, 80 percent of people who had a recent history of self-described or doctor-diagnosed sinus headache, but no signs of sinus infection, actually met the criteria for migraine. Here are some tips that will put a name to your pain.
Tension headaches, the most common type, feel like a constant ache or pressure around the head, especially at the temples or back of the head and neck. Not as severe as migraines, they don’t usually cause nausea or vomiting, and they rarely halt daily activities.
Over-the-counter treatments are usually sufficient to treat them. Experts believe these may be caused by the contraction of neck and scalp muscles (including in response to stress), and possibly changes in brain chemicals.
Cluster headaches, which affect more men than women, are recurring headaches that occur in groups or cycles. They appear suddenly and are characterised by severe, debilitating pain on one side of the head, and are often accompanied by a watery eye and nasal congestion or a runny nose on the same side of the face.
During an attack, people often feel restless and unable to get comfortable; they are unlikely to lie down, as someone with a migraine might. The cause of cluster headaches is unknown, but there may be a genetic component. There is no cure, but medication can cut the frequency and duration.
When a sinus becomes inflamed, often due to an infection, it can cause pain. It usually comes with a fever and can be diagnosed by symptoms or the presence of pus viewed through a fibre-optic scope.
Headaches due to sinus infection can be treated with antibiotics, as well as antihistamines or decongestants.
Overuse of painkillers for headaches can, ironically, lead to rebound headaches.
Culprits include over-the-counter medications as well as prescription drugs.
One theory is that too much medication can cause the brain to shift into an excited state, triggering more headaches. Another is that rebound headaches are a symptom of withdrawal as the level of medicine drops in the bloodstream.
Migraines can run in families and are diagnosed using certain criteria.
- At least five previous episodes of headaches
- Lasting between four–72 hours
- At least two out of these four: one-sided pain, throbbing pain, moderate-to-severe pain, and pain that interferes with, is worsened by, or prohibits routine activity
- At least one associated feature: nausea and/or vomiting, or, if those are not present, then sensitivity to light and sound
A migraine may be foreshadowed by aura, such as visual distortions or hand numbness. (About 15 percent to 20 percent of people with migraines experience these.)
What’s to blame?
Could it be something you ate? Not enough sleep? Our comprehensive list just might help you figure out what’s really causing your headache.
In a study, researchers found that obese women (a body mass index of 30) had a 35 percent greater risk of headaches than those with a lower BMI. Severe obesity (BMI of 40) upped the chances to 80 percent.
Certain traits, including being rigid, reserved, and obsessive may make you headache-prone. If that sounds like you, it could be time to sign up for relaxation training.
The big O
In one survey, 46 percent of headache sufferers said sex had triggered a headache. Usually, this is an overexertion headache (like joggers and weightlifters sometimes get); you may feel a dull pain that builds during foreplay or get a sudden headache around orgasm (more likely in men). For most folks, though, sex headaches are harmless.
Weekend or “let-down” headaches can happen when you take a break from your routine, says Alexander Mauskop, MD, founder and director of the New York Headache Centre and co-author of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Migraines. Ease into the change by keeping your sleep time as normal as possible—you’ll end up feeling more rested than if you stay in bed until noon
You don’t need to be super-thirsty to be dehydrated. One of the big signs of dehydration is a headache, along with sour mood, decreased energy levels, and inability to focus. Rather than guzzling down glass after glass of water, try getting more water from the foods you eat, says John La Puma, MD, author of ChefMD’s Big Book of Culinary Medicine. “I’d love it if people got more water from eating fruits and vegetables because then they’d get all the other good things that come with them,” he says. —Online