Dr Tendai Zuze Health Matters
Nosebleeds involve bleeding from the inside of your nose. Many people have occasional nosebleeds, known in medical terms as epistaxis. Nosebleeds may be scary, but generally are a minor annoyance. Frequent nosebleeds are those that occur more than once a week.
You should seek emergency medical attention if nosebleeds are severe, last longer than 30 minutes, interfere with breathing or follow an injury.
So what causes nosebleeds, well, the lining of your nose contains many tiny blood vessels that lie close to the surface and are easily damaged.
The two most common causes of nosebleeds are dry air (when your nasal membranes dry out, they’re more susceptible to bleeding and infections) and nose picking.
Other causes of nosebleeds include infections, allergies, use of blood thinners (like warfarin and aspirin), illicit drugs like cocaine, a foreign body in the nose, chronic allergy, nasal spray use and trauma to the nose.
Less common causes of nosebleeds include alcohol use, nasal polyps, nasal tumours, surgery and blood clotting disorders. Studies haven’t confirmed an association between high blood pressure and nosebleeds. Some specialists suggest that high blood pressure may prolong bleeding if you have a nosebleed.
Nosebleeds are common. Most often they are a nuisance and not a true medical problem. But they can be both.
To take care of a nosebleed
- Sit upright and lean forward. By remaining upright, you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. This discourages further bleeding. Sitting forward will help you avoid swallowing blood, which can irritate your stomach.
- Pinch your nose. Use your thumb and index finger to pinch your nostrils shut. Breathe through your mouth. Continue to pinch for five to 10 minutes. Pinching sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood.
- To prevent re-bleeding, don’t pick or blow your nose and don’t bend down for several hours after the bleeding episode. During this time remember to keep your head higher than the level of your heart.
- If re-bleeding occurs, blow out forcefully to clear your nose of blood clots and spray both sides of your nose with a decongestant nasal spray containing oxymetazoline. Pinch your nose again as described above and call your doctor.
Seek medical care immediately if
- The bleeding lasts for more than 30 minutes
- The nosebleed follows an accident, a fall or an injury to your head, including a punch in the face that may have broken your nose
Contact your doctor if
- You experience frequent nosebleeds. You may need a blood vessel cauterized. Cautery is a technique in which the blood vessel is burned with electric current, silver nitrate or a laser. Your doctor may pack your nose with special gauze or an inflatable latex balloon to put pressure on the blood vessel and stop the bleeding.
- You’re experiencing nasal bleeding and are taking blood thinners, such as aspirin or warfarin. Your doctor may advise adjusting your medication dosage.
Using supplemental oxygen administered with a nasal tube (cannula) may increase your risk of nosebleeds. Apply a water-based lubricant to your nostrils and increase the humidity in your home to help relieve nasal bleeding.
If you are having problems with frequent nose bleeding please visit your doctor.